Sunday, July 29, 2018

Stress analysis and cytotoxicity in response to the biotic elicitor, Piriformospora indica and its’ cell wall extract in Centella asiatica L. Urban.

Stress analysis and cytotoxicity in response to the biotic elicitor, Piriformospora indica and its' cell wall extract in Centella asiatica L. Urban

Highlights

Oxidative stress analysis in Centella asiatica(L.) Urban on co-cultivation with Piriformospora indica and its extract is proposed.
The presence of Piriformospora indica had protective role in alleviating stress.
No variation in the cytotoxicity levels in control and treated groups, as evidenced by MTT assay.
The cell integrity appeared intact in P. indicacolonized C. asiatica.

Abstract

Study reports prominent findings on the analysis of oxidative stress generated in Centella asiatica, a multifunctional medicinal plant on co-cultivation with P. indica and its extract, P. indica Cell Wall Extract. The presence of P. indica had protective role in alleviating stress, evidenced by lack of significant change in H2O2, increased total antioxidant capacity and phenolics in P. indica colonized and PiCWE treated plants. No variation was observed between IC50 values and the cell integrity in P. indica colonized C. asiaticaappeared intact by TEM analysis. The study preludes the possible role of P. indica in conferring drought tolerance to C. asiatica.

Keywords

Endosymbiosis, 
Centella asiatica, 
Oxidative stress, 
Piriformospora indica, 
Total antioxidant capacity

Genome-wide differential expression profiling in wild and cultivar genotypes of cardamom reveals regulation of key pathways in plant growth and development

Agri Gene

Volume 8, June 2018, Pages 18-27

Genome-wide differential expression profiling in wild and cultivar genotypes of cardamom reveals regulation of key pathways in plant growth and development

Highlights

Transcriptome sequencing data of five cultivars and a wild genotype of cardamom was used to find the differential expression profiling of the cultivar and wild genotypes of cardamom.
Differential expression profiling of the cultivar and wild genotypes of cardamom exhibited 132 unigenes as differentially expressed (log2>4) with 105 up regulated and 27 down regulated genes in cultivars comparing with its wild genotype.
This work represents the first report on differential expression profiling and functional annotation of wild and cultivar genotypes which will enhance the genomic resources of the species.

Abstract

Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) is an economically valuable spice crop and the essential oil of cardamom possesses splendid medicinal properties. To get insight into the domestication related traits and varied gene regulation, differential expression profiling of wild and cultivar cardamom was performed by analyzing the transcriptome data available for cardamom. Functional annotation using seven different publicly available databases identified significant genes coding for enzymes participating in monoterpenoid biosynthesis. Differential expression profile of cultivar and wild genotypes of cardamom exhibited 132 unigenes as differentially expressed (log2 > 4) with 105 up regulated and 27 down regulated genes in cultivars comparing with its wild genotype. Expression analysis showed wild cardamom has increased drought stress tolerance, defense response, and various plant growth regulations. Most of the genes coding for enzymes participating in flavanoid biosynthesis were up regulated, while resistance related genes (cinnamoyl CoA reductase) and few genes involved in the monoterpenoid biosynthetic pathway were down regulated in cultivars when compared to its wild progenitor. Transcriptome data were validated and correlated using qPCR using 10 randomly selected differentially expressed genes. Our study is the first application of next generation RNA-seq to explore the genes involved in various metabolic pathways and quantification of transcript expression levels in cultivar and wild cardamom genotypes.
Keywords
Cardamom, 
Transcriptome, 
Differential expression, 
Up regulation, 
Down regulation, 
Essential oil biosynthesis

Piriformospora indica Cell wall Extract as the best elicitor for asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, evidenced by morphological, physiological and molecular analyses

 2018 Apr;125:106-115. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.01.021. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Piriformospora indica cell wall extract as the best elicitor for asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, evidenced by morphological, physiological and molecular analyses.

Abstract

Vascular plants synthesise a multitude of organic molecules or phytochemicals, referred to as "secondary metabolites". These molecules are involved in a variety of roles in the life span of plants, ranging from structural ones to protection. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban has probably been used since prehistoric times and has been reported to have been used for various medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The plant contains several active constituents, of which the most important is asiaticoside, a triterpenoid. Asiaticoside content in C. asiatica can be enhanced by the use of biotic elicitors like Piriformospora indica. P. indica has been used as a model to study the mechanisms and evolution of mutualistic symbiosis. P. indica is similar to Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in terms of plant growth promotional effects. The autoclaved fraction from P. indica (PiCWE) was found to be the most active fraction in promoting the plant biomass and asiaticoside content. To date, there are no reports on the potential role of PiCWE in enhancement of asiaticoside over the control and P. indica colonized plants, which was evidenced by the differential expression of key genes involved and final asiaticoside content along with the determination of phytohormones. Moreover, differential expression of selected miRNAs in PiCWE - C. asiatica root interactions over the control and P. indica treated C. asiatica leaf samples was also scrutinized. The important consequence of induction with PiCWE was the significant enhancement of asiaticoside in the PiCWE induced plants in comparison with the asiaticoside content in control and P. indica-C. asiatica interaction. In addition, the role of miRNAs in C. asiatica - PiCWE would enable more in-depth studies for deciphering the molecular and physiological mechanisms of the association and regulation of PiCWE - C. asiatica interactions.

KEYWORDS:

Centella asiatica; HPLC; Piriformospora indica cell wall extract; β amyrin synthase
PMID:
 
29438895
 
DOI:
 
10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.01.021

Sunday, January 14, 2018

Rapidly evolving sex-specific sequences in Calamus travancoricus Bedd. ex. Becc. and Calamus nagbettai R.R.Fernald & Dey

Gene sequences mediating sexual reproduction are more divergent within and between closely related species. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are valuable molecular tools for analysis of genetic variability, phylogeny, and also for identifying sex at seedling stage in dioecious plant species. Calamus travancoricus Bedd. ex. Becc. and Calamus nagbettai R.R.Fernald & Dey are economically important rattan species. The dioecious nature of the Calamus spp. limits its breeding and cultivation. The sex of rattans can only be identified after attaining reproductive maturity which ranges from 5 to 15 years. A study was carried out in this background and 9 putative sex-specific PCR products were identified as sex markers for Ctravancoricus and Cnagbettai and sequenced by Sanger method. The sequence homology search revealed occurrence of identical sequences in many plant species across different families indicating the conserved nature of the sequences. However, these sequences were not present in opposite sex in the studied species, indicating divergent evolution favoring sex determination. Annotation of these sequences revealed that most of these are mediating sexual reproduction by and large. An adequate sex ratio is to be maintained for these dioecious palms in natural habitat for producing offsprings having equal gene complements for continual evolution and sustainable utilization. Developing scientific management strategies and improved utilization of canes could help to generate employment locally and thus contribute to the socioeconomics sustainably.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11295-017-1220-2

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